Chongqing City is located in the southeastern part of the Sichuan Basin and the junction of the Yangtze River and the Jialing River. The city of Chongqing is built along the topography of the mountain, and its landscape resembles a peninsular. Therefore, it is regarded as "Mountain City". Surrounded by mountains, the city is hot and rainy in summer, so it is sometimes called "the Furnaces".
Chongqing City is the birthplace of the Bayu culture (meaning Chongqing), and has a 3000-year history and was called "Ba" in ancient times. During the year 1189, Emperor Guangzong of the Song Dynasty was first conferred as "King Gong", i.e., the governor of Gong District, and soon succeeded the throne, which he considered as "Double Happy Events". As a celebration, he advanced Gong District to Chongqing Prefecture, which is the derivation of the name. During the Anti-Japanese War, the Kuomintang moved from Nanjing to Chongqing and made it a war-time capital, which results in many commemorative sites such as the Red Crag Village, the Chongqing Office of the Eighth Route Army, and so on. 1997, Chongqing became the fourth municipality directly under the Central Government, together with Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin.
As the largest city of China, Chongqing covers an area of 82,400 sq kilometers with a population of 30 million. Chongqing City is characteristic of landscape of mountain city, commemorative sites of revolution, historical sites of the Anti-Japanese War, city gardens, scenes of cultural interest, and nature reserves. It blends the Bayu culture with natural scenery and comprises hills, water, forests, spring, falls, canyons and caves. Famous scenic spots and relics include the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River, and the Dazu Grottoes, which was inscribed by UNESCO on the World Heritage List in 1999. But to enjoy the dim shadows of the boats and steamers will be most attractive. Also, Chongqing is famous for its hot Sichuan cuisine and world-famous hotpot dishes. Street vendors as well as restaurants feature exciting spicy delicacies for the adventurers.
Endowed with a convenient communication in the water, air and land transportation, Chongqing has become an economic, commercial, financial centre and a communication hub on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Chongqing is also China's important synthesized industrial city. Its heavy industry is of a big scale, especially as of iron and steel, machinery and automobiles. There is a balanced development of agriculture. Chongqing is famous for orange plantation area along the Yangtze River area, hence the "Golden Corridor."
Like most other modern cities in China, Chongqing also has a well developed education system. It boasts 25 colleges and universities and about 1,000 scientific research institutes, employing 560,000 scientific and technological personnel. The city has established economic and trade relations with more than 140 countries and regions. It has more than 2,000 foreign-funded enterprises Chongqing is also the embarkation point for cruises through the famous Three Gorges and on down the Wuhan, Yichang, Nanjing or Shanghai.